RGPV M.C.A 4th Semester (Grading System) Syllabus

Monday, January 21


                                              MCA-401 Artificial Intelligence & Applications  

UNIT-I General Issues and Overview of AI  The AI problems, what is an AI technique, Characteristics of AI applications. Introduction to LISP programming: Syntax and numeric functions, Basic list manipulation functions, predicates and conditionals, input output and local variables, iteraction and recursion, property lists and arrays.

UNIT-II Problem Solving, Search and Control Strategies  General problem solving, production systems, control strategies forward and backward chaining, exhausive searches depth first breadth first search. Heuristic Search Techniques  Hill climbing, branch and bound technique, best first search & A* algorithm, AND / OR graphs, problem reduction & AO* algorithm, constraint satisfaction problems.

UNIT-III Knowledge Representations  First order predicate calculus, skolemization, resolution principle & unification, interface mechanisms, horn's clauses, semantic networks, frame systems and value inheritance, scripts, conceptual dependency.

UNIT-IV Natural Language processing  Parsing techniques, context free grammer, recursive transitions nets (RNT), augmented transition nets (ATN), case and logic grammers, symantic analysis. Game playing Minimax search procedure, alpha-beta cutoffs, additional refinments. Planning  Overview an example domain the block word, component of planning systems, goal stack planning, non linear planning.

UNIT-V Probabilistic Reasoning and Uncertainty  Probability theory, bayes theorem and bayesian networks, certainty factor.
Expert Systems  Introduction to expert system and application of expert systems, various expert system shells, vidwan frame work, knowledge acquisition, case studies, MYCIN.
Learning   Rote learning, learning by induction, explanation based learning.



                                              MCA-402 Mobile Communications   


UNIT- I Overview of OSI Model : Significance of layered Model , PDUs, SDUs,IDUs, Higher layer Protocols. Switching and Components.  Introduction, Applications, history, of wired & wireless Communication systems.  Radio Transmission: frequencies ,signal propagation, antenna , types of modulation, FHSS, DSSS.  Multiple Access technology for Wireless Communication : FDMA,TDMA,CDMA  Cellular System: Introduction, types.

UNIT–II Mobile Data Communication: Cellular Telephony, Structure, Fading, Small scale fading, Multi-path Fading, Speech Coding, Error Coding and Correction, Hand off Management, Switching and authentication, MTSO interconnections, frequency hopping, frequency reuse.  Circuit Switched Data Services & Packet Switched Data Services on Cellular Networks, Personal Communication Systems (PCS) Architecture, Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT,) Personal Access Comm. System (PACS).

UNIT-III Digital Cellular Systems and Standards: GSM System overview, Architecture, GSM Protocol Model, GSM Mobility Management, SMS security aspects. Broadcast System overview. General Packet Service (GRPS) Architecture, GRPS Network, Interfaces and Procedures (2.5 G), 3G Mobile Services: UMTS and International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT-2000), W-C DMA and CDMA 2000,Quality of service in 3G .

UNIT- IV WLAN : Components and working of Wireless LAN, Transmission Media for WLAN, Infrastructure  & types of WLAN, IEEE 802.11 Standards , Protocols for WLAN ,MACA,MACAW, Infrared technology. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) model, architecture, Gateway, WAP protocols and WML

UNIT-V Introduction to Bluetooth technology. Wireless in Local Loop (WLL) architecture, products. Satellite as a switch, Components of VSAT system, VSAT topologies, access schemes.



                                          MCA-403  Computer Graphics & Multimedia  


UNIT-I Computer Graphics : definition, classification & Applications, Development of Hardware & Software for Computer Graphics. Display devices, Hard copy devices. Interactive Input devices, display processor, Line drawing; various algorithms and their  comparison, circle generation- Bresenham’s mid point circle drawing   algorithm, mid point ellipse drawing  algorithm.

UNIT-II Attributes of output primitives, line style, color and intensity, Area filling algorithms, Scan line algorithm, boundary fill flood fill algorithm, Antialiasing techniques. Two dimensional transformations; translation, scaling, rotation, reflection  sheering, composite transformation, transformation commands, character generation.

UNIT-III Viewing coordinates, Window, view port, clipping, Window to view port  transformation, line clipping algorithm; Cohen Sutherland, polygon clipping; Sutherland hodgman algorithm, 3D clipping : Normalized view volumes, view port clipping, clipping in homogeneous coordinates.  
Illumination model: Light sources, diffuse reflection specular reflection, reflected light, intensity levels, surface shading; phong shading ground shading, color models like RGB, YIQ, CMY, HSV etc.

UNIT-IV 3-D Viewing: Three-dimensional concepts, 3D display techniques, 3D representation polygon & curved surfaces. Design of curves & surfaces- Bezier’s Method, B-spline methods, 3D transformation transition, scaling, composite transformation rotation about arbitrary axis, projections: Parallel & Perspective, Hidden surface and line removal; back face removal, depth buffer and scan line methods.

UNIT-V Introduction to multimedia, multimedia components, multimedia hardware, SCSI, IDE, MCI, Multimedia data and file formats, RTF, TIFF, MIDI, JPEG, DIB, MPEG, Multimedia tools, presentations tools, Authoring tools, presentations.
 


                                           MCA-404  Design and Analysis of Algorithms   

UNIT – I Pre-requisites: Data structure & Discrete structures, models of computation, algorithm analysis, order architecture, time space complexities average and worst case analysis.

UNIT-II Divide and conquer: Structure of divide-and-conquer algorithms: examples; Binary search, quick sort, Strassen Multiplication; Analysis of divide and conquer run time recurrence relations.
Graph searching and Traversal: Overview, Traversal methods (depth first and breadth first search)

UNIT-III Greedy Method: Overview of the greedy paradigm examples of exact optimization solution (minimum cost spanning tree), Approximate solution (Knapsack problem), Single source shortest paths.
Branch and bound: LC searching Bounding, FIFO branch and bound, LC branch and bound application: 0/1 Knapsack problem, Traveling Salesman Problem, searching & sorting algorithms.

UNIT-IV Dynamic programming: Overview, difference between dynamic programming and divide and conquer, Applications: Shortest path in graph, Matrix multiplication, Traveling salesman Problem, longest Common sequence.
Back tracking: Overview, 8-queen problem, and Knapsack problem

UNIT-V Computational Complexity: Complexity measures, Polynomial Vs non-polynomial time complexity; NP-hard and NP-complete classes, examples.
Combinational algorithms, string processing algorithm, Algebric algorithms , set algorithms
 


                                         MCA-405 Elective-I :   E1(a) Managerial Economics  

UNIT-I Nature and scope of managerial economics, objectives of firm, management and behavioral theories of the firm.

UNIT-II Concepts of opportunity cost , incremental, time perspective, principles of discounting and aquamarine, demand analysis purpose and concepts, elasticity of demand, methods of demand forecasting.

UNIT-III Product and cost analysis: short run and long run average cost curves. Profits: nature and measurement policy, break even analysis, case study.

UNIT-IV Law of supply, economies and diseconomies of scale, law of variable proportions. Production functions: single output isoquants.

UNIT-V Pricing: prescriptive approach, price determination under perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition, full cost pricing, pricing strategies
 



                           MCA-405   Elective-I : E1(b) Java Programming & Technologies     

UNIT-I The Java Environment: History of Java: Comparison of Java and C++; Java as an object oriented language: Java buzzwords; A simple program, its compilation and execution; the concept of CLASSPATH; Basic idea of application and applet; Basics: Data types; Operators- precedence and associativity; Type conversion; The decision making – if, if ..else, switch; loops – for, while, do…while; special statements–return, break, continue, labeled break, labeled continue; Modular programming methods; arrays; memory allocation and garbage collection in java keywords.  Object Oriented Programming in Java: Class; Packages; scope and lifetime; Access specifies; Constructors; Copy constructor; this pointer; finalize () method; arrays; Memory allocation and garbage collection in java keywords Inheritance : Inheritance basics, method overriding, dynamics method dispatch, abstract classes.

UNIT-II Interfaces : defining an interface, implementing & applying interfaces, variables in interfaces, extending interfaces. Multithreading and Exception Handling: Basic idea of multithreaded programming; The lifecycle of a thread; Creating thread with the thread class and runnable interface; Thread synchronization; Thread scheduling; Producer-consumer relationship; Daemon thread, Selfish threads; Basic idea of exception handling; The try, catch and throw; throws Constructor and finalizers in exception handling; Exception Handling.

UNIT-III Applets: Applet security restrictions; the class hierarchy for applets; Life cycle of applet; HTML Tags for applet. The AWT: The class hierarchy of window fundamentals;  The basic user interface components Label, Button, Check Box, Radio Button, Choice menu, Text area, Scroll list, Scroll bar; Frame; Layout managers- flow layout, Grid layout, Border layout, Card layout. The Java Event Handling Model: Java’s event delegation model – lgnoring the event, Self contained events, Delegating events; The event class hierarchy; The relationship between interface, methods called, parameters and event source; Adapter classes; Event classes action Event, Adjustment Event, Container Event, Focus Event, Item Event, Eey Event, Mouse Event, Text Event, Window Event.

UNIT-IV Input/Output : Exploring Java i.o., Directories, stream classes The Byte stream : Input stream, output stream, file input stream, file output stream, print stream, Random access file, the character streams,  Buffered reader, buffered writer, print writer, serialization. JDBC: JDBC-ODBC bridge; The connectivity model; The driver manager; Navigating the resultset object contents; java.sql Package; The JDBC exception classes; Connecting to Remote database.

UNIT-V Networking & RMI:  Java Networking : Networking Basics : Socket, Client server, reserved sockets, proxy servers, Inet address, TCP sockets, UDP sockets.  ; RMI for distributed computing; RMI registry services; Steps of creating RMI Application and an example. Collections: The collections framework, collection interfaces, collection classes.



                                        MCA-405 Elective-I : E1(c)  Compiler Design    

UNIT-I Introduction to Compiling and one pass compiler : Compilers and translators, phases of compilers, Structure of a compiler, compiler writing tools, bootstrapping, overview of one pass compiler, Error handling. Finite Automata & Lexical Analysis : Role of lexical analyser, specification of tokens, recognition of tokens, regular expression, finite automata, form regular expression to finite automata, DFA and NFA, implementation of lexical analyser, tools for lexical analyser, only introduction to LEX.

UNIT-II Syntax Analysis & Parsing Techniques : Context free grammers, Phase tree, ambiguity of parse tree, bottom up parsing and top down parsing, shift reduce parshing, operator precedence parsing, elimination of left recursion, recursive descent parsing, predictive parser construction, Transition diagram.  

UNIT-III LR parsers, constructing SLR and canonical LR parsing tables, using ambiguous grammer, Introduction to YACC, LR(1) & LALR Parsers. Syntax Directed Translation : Syntax directed translation scheme, construction of syntax trees, SDT with inherrited and synthesized attributes, symbol tables.

UNIT-IV  Intermedicate code generation : Intermedicate languages, prefix notation,  three address code, quadruples and triples, translation of assignment statements, boolean expression, procedural calls and iterative statements. Run time Environment : Source language issues, storage organisation and allocation strategies, parameter passing, implementation of block structured languages.

UNIT-V Error Detection and Recovery : Errors, sources of errors, Lexical & syntactic phase error, semantic errors:panic mode error recovery & pharse level error recovery mechanisms. Code Optimization : Optimization of basic blocks, loop optimization, global data flow analysis, loop invariant computations and other related optimization techniques. Code Generation : Issues in design of code generation, simple code generaton techniques.



                           MCA-405 Elective-I : E1(d)  Microprocessor and Interfaces   

UNIT –1 Intel 8086 Microprocessor:  8086 Architecture, Pin out diagram and pin description, Addressing Modes,  bus transfer techniques with read/write cycle, 8086 Interrupts and Interrupt Responses.

UNIT –II Interfacing of 8086 with Memories, PPI (8255), Keyboard Controller (8279), DMA Controller (8257)  Interfacing of 8086 with Programmable Interval Timer (8254) and Programmable Interrupt Controller (8259).

UNIT-III Introduction to Intel 80286, comparison of 80286 with 8086,80286 Architecture signal and system connection, Real and Virtual Addressing Modes, Memory Management Scheme, 80286 Protection Mechanism, 80286 Interrupts.

UNIT-IV Introduction to Intel 80386,comparison of 80386 with 8086,80286,Difference between 80386SX and 80386DX, Memory and I/O system of 80386,Special 80386 Registers, 80386 Memory Management Scheme, memory Paging   Scheme

UNIT-V Introduction of 80486, Difference between 80486DX and 80486SX,Basic 80486 Architecture, 80486 Memory and I/O system, 80486 Memory Management Scheme, Introduction to Pentium, Pentium Memory and I/O system, Special Pentium Registers, Pentium Memory Management, Difference between Pentium and Pentium Pro.



                       MCA-405 Elective-I : E1(e)  Advanced  DataBase Management System  

UNIT-I Objected Oriented and Object Relational Databases Modeling Complex Data Semantics, Specialization, Generalization, Aggregation and Association, Objects, Object Identity and its implementation, Clustering, Equality and Object Reference, Architecture of Object Oriented and Object Relational databases, Persistent Programming Languages, Cache Coherence. Case Studies: Gemstone, O2, Object Store, SQL3, Oracle xxi, DB2.

UNIT-II  Deductive Databases  Data log and Recursion, Evaluation of Data log program, Recursive queries with negation. Parallel and Distributed Databases Parallel architectures, shared nothing/shared disk/shared memory based architectures, Data partitioning, Intra-operator parallelism, pipelining. Distributed Data Storage – Fragmentation & Replication, Location and Fragment Transparency Distributed Query Processing and Optimization, Distributed Transaction Modeling and concurrency Control, Distributed Deadlock, Commit Protocols, Design of Parallel Databases, and Parallel Query Evaluation.  

UNIT-III Advanced Transaction Processing Advanced transaction models: Savepoints, Nested and Multilevel Transactions, Compensating Transactions and Saga, Long Duration Transactions, Weak Levels of Consistency, Transaction Work Flows, Transaction Processing Monitors, Shared disk systems.

UNIT-IV Active Database and Real Time Databases Triggers in SQL, Event Constraint and Action: ECA Rules, Query Processing and Concurrency Control, Recursive query processing, Compensation and Databases Recovery, multi-level recovery.  

UNIT-V Image and Multimedia Databases  Modeling and Storage of Image and Multimedia Data, Data Structures – R-tree, k-d tree, Quad trees, Content Based Retrieval: Color Histograms, Textures, etc., Image Features, Spatial and Topological Relationships, Multimedia Data Formats, Video Data Model, Audio & Handwritten Data, Geographic Information Systems (GIS).  WEB Database Accessing Databases through WEB, WEB Servers, XML Databases, Commercial Systems – Oracle xxi, DB2.  

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