**EI- 801 – Optical Instruments and Sensors**

**Unit-I**

Introduction to vector nature of light, Propagation of light, Propagation of light in a cylindrical

dielectric rod, ray model, wave model. Theory of image formation, Review of aberration,

Comma, acclamation, distortion, Chromative aberration, Osages

**Unit-II**

Different types of optical fibres, model analysis of a step index fiber. Signal degradation on

optical fiber due to dispersion and attenuation.

**Unit-III**

Optical fiber in instrumentation use of optical fibers as sensors, modulation techniques for

sensors fiber optic power measurement. Stabilized calibrated light sources end-to-end

measurement of fiber losses, optical signal processing.

**Unit-IV**

Optical power meters, optical attenuators, optical spectrum analyzer, optical switching & logic

gate and measurement techniques like optical time domain reflectometry, (OTDR), attenuation

measurements

**Unit-V**

Optical Sources & detectors: LED and LASERS, photo detectors, pin detectors detector

responsitivity – noise, optical receivers. Integrated optical devices

__LIST OF EXPERIMENTS__

__Optical Instrumentation and Sensors__1. Setting up Fiber Optic Analog Link and Digital Link

2. Study of Intensity Modulation Technique using Analog input signal

3. Pulse Width Modulation in Fiber Optic Link.

4. Measurement of propagation or attenuation loss in optical fiber.

5. Measurement of bending loss in optical fiber.

6. Numerical Aperture (NA) of the fiber.

7. Study of Diffraction gratings.

8. Study of Michelson Interferometer.

9. Study of Reflection Holography.

10. Study of Transmission Holography

**EI- 802 – Digital Control Systems**

**Unit-I**

Modeling of Digital Control System Block diagram of sampled data / digital control system,

Discrete LTI systems characterized by difference equations Sampling process and its frequency

domain analysis, Idea sampler, Sampling theorem & Nyquist frequency, Data conversion

techniques uses of A/D, D/A and ZOH elements.

**Unit-II**

Discrete System Modeling Definition and determination of the Z-plane and Z-transform,

Mapping between S-plane and Z-plane, Z-transform theorems, The inverse Z-transform, Ztransform

of system equations, Solution of linear difference equations using Z-transform, The

pulse response, Block diagram reduction for systems interconnected through samplers, Signal

flow graphs for hybrid systems.

**Unit-III**

Discrete Control Analysis Stability studies using Routh's test & Jury's test, Steady state error

Analysis for stable systems, Root locus Analysis, Correlation between time Response &

frequency response.

**Unit-IV**

Discrete Transform Analysis Folding / Aliasing, Transformation Methods between planes (s, z

and w), Numerical solution differential, Equations, Jordon transformation, Backward forward &

canonical difference, Pseudo continuous-time (PCT) Control system.

**Unit-V**

Discrete state Variable Analysis State variable representation, Time domain state and output

equations for sampled data control system, State variable representation of a discrete time

SISO system using phase variables - canonical variables - physical variables, State transition

equation, State variable representation in the z-domain, System stability, Time response

between sampling instants.

__List of Experiments__1. Overview of the MATLAB Environment for control system.

2. Step Response of 1st and 2nd order systems in MATLAB.

3. Analysis and Designing of bode plot using MATLAB.

4. Analysis and Designing of Root locus using MATLAB.

5. Introduction to Simulink for Control System.

6. To study of PID controller with Simulink.

7. Introduction of State Spaces design in MATLAB.

8. Test of Controllability and Observability.

9. Determination of state transition matrix

10. Introduction to LTI viewer.

11. Design of digital compensators, Lag, Lead-Leg.

EI- 8301 – Simulation & Modeling

**Unit-I**

*objectives of modeling, System theory and state variables*

__Introduction:__Type of Model: Analytic, Simulation, Measurement, Analytic Modeling, Probability theory,

Random variables, Poisson process, Markov chains.

**Unit-II**

Queuing Theory: Little’s Law, M/M/1, M/M/1/k, M/M/C, queuing Models, M/G/1[ Impact variation

in service times]

**Unit-III**

Petrinets:

__Stochastic Petrinets[SPN],GSPN.__

**Unit-IV**

*Continuous and discrete event Simulation, Monte carlo Simulation,*

__Simulation Modeling:__Pseudo random number generation, Non uniform Random variable Generation, Simulation

Languages Features: Simpack, GPSS, GASP IV, CSIM, Estimation of Simulation

Outputs/Output Matrix, confidence Intervals, Regenerative Simulation, Method of Batch Means.

**Unit-V**

*Analytic Vs Simulation Models, Application to Operating Systems, Data bases,*

__Case Studies:__Networks Architectures.

EI- 8302 – Embedded Systems

**Unit-I**

*Introduction to MCS-51 family, Peripheral of MCS-51 family, PIC Micro*

__8 Bit Micro controllers:__Controller –CPU architecture, registers, instruction sets addressing modes, loop timing, On chip

Peripherals of PIC, Motorola MC68H11 Family Architecture Registers, Addressing modes,

Interruptsfeatures of interrupts- Interrupt vector and Priority, timing generation and

measurements, Input capture, Out capture.

**Unit-II**

*Introduction to MCS-96 family, Peripherals of MCS-96 family, 80196-*

__16 Bit Micro controller:__architecture, CPU operation, memory organization, I/O port, Operand addressing, instruction

set, Interrupts, On chip Peripherals-PWM, Timers, HIS/HSO, Serial Port, External memory

interfacing.

**Unit-III**

*Intel 80960-architecture, memory address space, Salient features of*

__32 bit Micro controller:__ARM processor family-ARM7 /ARM9/ ARM9E/ ARM10/ ARM11/ SecureCore /Strong ARM,

XScale technology, ARM9200 Architecture,Pinouts, Peripheral Identifier, System Interrupts,

External Interrupts, Product memory mapping, External memory mapping, Internal memory

mapping, On chip Peripherals-Memory controllers, external Bus Interface(EBI), Advanced

interrupt controller(AIC), USART, Timer counter.

**Unit-IV**

*Embedded system evolution trends. Round- Robin,*

__Software development and tools:__Roundrobin with Interrupts, function- One- Scheduling Architecture, Algorithms. Introduction

toassembler- compiler- cross compilers and Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Object

Oriented Interfacing, Recursion, Debugging strategies, Simulators.

**Unit-V**

*Task and Task States, tasks and data, semaphores and*

__Real Time Operating Systems:__shared Data Operating system Services- Message queues- Timer Function- Events- Memory

Management, Interrupt Routines in an RTOS environment, basic design Using RTOS.

EI- 8303 – Intelligent Instrumentation

**Unit-I**

Intelligent versus Dumb instruments, A historical perspective of instrumentation systems.

Review of digital transducers. Interfacing micro computers. Computer ports to high power

devices. Optical shaft encoder communication standards. Concepts of Real Time system and its

application.

**Unit-II**

Details of Data Acquisition systems (DAS) Logic control systems, Continuous & Batch modes,

Single and multi loop controller. Details of Data logger and its application.

**Unit-III**

Architecture of Virtual instrument and its relation to operating system. Software overview:

LABVIEW, Graphical User Interface (GUI), Control and indicators: G programming- Data type,

Data flow programming editing and running a virtual instrument.

**Unit-IV**

G Programming details in LABVIEW, G Programming tools and libraries. Programming

structure: For loop, While loop. CASE structure, Sequence Structure arrays and clusters. Array

operations- Bundle/Unbundled String and file I/O. High level and low level I/Os. Attribute nodes,

Local and global variables.

**Unit-V**

Software development for Temperature (Low and High), Level, Speed, pressure etc.

EI- 8304 – Nuclear Instrumentation

**Unit-I**

General Introduction to Properties of Nuclear Systems and Radiation, Interaction of radiation

with matter, Radioactive sources-Choice of isotopes.

Radiation detectors-Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller counters, Scintillation counters,

Semiconductor devices, Neutron detectors based on recoil, Measuring circuits including

modulators, converters and stabilizers, Synchronous detectors.

Counting Statistics, Correlation sets, Standard deviation of rate meters, Error propagation,

Effect of background, Statistical distribution of pulse height distribution, Detector efficiency.

**Unit-II**

__Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation__Diffusion, moderation, absorption and delay processes, Neutron flux measurement, Control rod

calibration, Nuclear fuel inspection and testing including poisoning, Radiation energy

measurement, Remote control instrumentation, Nuclear instrument maintenance.

**Unit-III**

__Application to industrial System__Radioactive Tracer technique, Gas and Liquid flow measurement, Leak detection, Residence

time and its distribution, application to blending corrosion and wear studiesThickness and

density measurement by beta rays, Gammaray absorption technique, measurement of

thickness of surface material by back scattering.

**Unit-IV**

Level detection by radioactive devices, interface detection by neutron moderation

technique.Measurement of gas pressure and gas analysers, Speceros-copic and frequency

methods.Void detection, a idity meter, moisture meter, smoke detection, Ozonizer,

Radiochromatography and interferometry.Portable instruments, Source activity for dynamic

properties of instruments.

**Unit-V**

__Safety__Hazards of ionization radiation, physiological effect of radiation, Dose and Risk, Radiological

protection (Plpha, beta and Gamma, X, Neutron), Shielding material and effectiveness.

Operational safety instruments, emergency schemes, effluent disposal, Application to medical

diagnosis and reatment.

EI- 8401– Fuzzy Logic & Neural Networks

**Unit-I**

Fuzzy system introduction, Fuzzy relation, Membership function, Fuzzy matrices and entropy,

Fuzzy operation and composition.

**Unit-II**

Fuzzy Variables, Linguistic variables, measures of fuzziness, concepts of defuzzification, Fuzzy

control applications.

**Unit-III**

Fundamentals of Artificial Neural networks- Biological prototype – Artificial neuron, Activation

functions, Single layer and multiplayer networks. Training Artificial neural networks,

Preceptrons, Exclusive Or Problem – Linear seperability, Storage efficiency, Preceptron

learning, perceptron training algorithms. Back propagation, Training algorithm, network

configurations, Network paralysis, Local minima, temporal instability.

**Unit-IV**

Counter propagation networks, Kohonen layer, Training the kohonen layer, Pre processing the

inputted vectors, Initialising the wright vectors, Statistical properties, Training the grosberg layer.

Full counter propagation networks, Applications.

Statistical methods, Boltzman training, Cauchy training, Artificial specific heat methods,

Applications to general non-linear optimization problems. Back propagation and cauchy training.

**Unit-V**

Hopfield nets, Recurrent networks, Stability, Associative memory, Thermodynamic systems,

Statistical Hopfiled networks, Applications. Bi-directional associative memories, Retrieving on

stored association, Encoding the associations.

EI- 8402– Digital Image Processing

**Unit-I**

*- Elements of a Digital Image Processing system, Structure of the*

__Digital Image Processing__Human eye, Image formation and contrast sensitivity, Sampling and Quantization, Neighbours

of a pixel, Distance measures, Photographic file structure and exposure, Filem characteristics,

Linear scanner, Video camera, Image processing applications.

**Unit-II**

*-Introduction to Fourier transform-DFT, Properties of two dimensional FT,*

__Image Transforms__Separability, Translation, Periodicity, Rotation, Average value, FFT algorithm, Walsh transform,

Hadamard transform, Discrete Cosine transform.

**Unit-III**

*Definition, Spatial domain methods, Frequency domain methods,*

__Image Enhancement-__Histogram modify technique, Neighborhood averaging, Media filtering, Lowpass filtering,

Averaging of multiple images, Image sharpening by differentiation and high pass filtering.

**Unit-IV**

*-Definition, Degradation model, Discrete formulation, Circulant matrices,*

__Image Restoration__Block circulant matrices, Effect of diagnolization of circulant and block circulant matrices,

Unconstrained and constrained restorations , Inverse filtering, Wiener filter, Restoration in

spatial domain.

**Unit-V**

*-Objective and subjective fidelity criteria, Basic encoding process, The*

__Image Encoding__mapping, The quantizer, The coder, Differential encoding, Contour encoding, Run length

encoding, Image encoding relative to fidelity criterion, Differential pulse code modulation.

EI- 8403– Advance Industrial Electronics

**Unit-I**

Introduction to modern power conductor devices: Gate turn off thyristor (GTO), Insulated Gate

Bipolar Junction Transistor (IGBT), Power BJT, Power MOSFET, MOS controlled thyristor

(MCT), Reverse conducting thyristor (RCT), Smart Power Devices (Power ICs) Rating, Static

and dynamic characteristics, Safe operating areas, Protections of devices, Devices selection.

**Unit-II**

DC to DC conversion, Buck Boost and Buck Boost converters (Circuit Configuration and

analysis with different types of loads) Power factor, Harmonics and effect of source inductance

in converter circuits. Resonant DC, DC converters. Switched mode power supply (SMPS).

**Unit-III**

Concept of PWM in converters, Unity power factor converters, Voltage source inverters (VSI),

Current source inverters (CSI). Application of VSI and CSI in induction motor control.

**Unit-IV**

Non Drive applications of power electronics inverters, Uninterrupted power supply (UPS),

Induction heating, Metal cutting, Active power line conditioning.

**Unit-V**

Vector controlled and slip power controlled induction motor drives, Application of

microprocessor, Micro controllers and DSP in Machine drives.

EI- 8404– DSP Processors

**UNIT I**

*Advantages of DSP ,characteristics of DSP systems*

__An introduction to DSP Processors:__,classes of DSP applications.DSP processor embodiment and alternatives,Fixed Vs Floating

point processors,fixed point and floating point data path.

**UNIT II**

*An intoduction to Harvard Architecture,Differentiation between Von-*

__DSP Architecture :__Neumann and Harvard Architecture,Quantization and finite word length effects,Bus structure

,Central Processing unit – ALU ,Accumulators ,Barrel shifters, MAC unit,compare ,select ,and

store unit (CSSU) ,data addressing and program memory addressing

**UNIT III**

*:Memory structures ,features for reducing memory access required ,wait*

__Memory architecture__states,external memory interfaces,memory mapping – dta memory,programmemory,I/O memory

memory mapped registers .Addressing: Various addressing modes –implied

addressing,immediate data addressing,memory direct addressing ,register direct and indirect

addressing and short addressing modes.

Instruction set : Instruction types , various types registers,orhogonality assembly language and

application development.

**UNIT IV**

*Hardware looping , interrupts, stack , pipelining and*

__Execution Control and pipelining :__performance, pipelining depth, interlocking , branching effects, interrupt effects, instruction

pipelining,. Peripherals: Serial ports, timers, parallel ports, Bit input/output ports, Host ports,

communication ports, on-chip A/D and D/A converters, external interrupts, on-chip debugging

facilities, power consumption and management.

**UNITV**

*Architecture and instruction set of TMS320C3x, TMS320C5x,*

__Processors:__TMS320C6x,ADSP21xx DSP chips, some examples programs.Recent trends in DSP system

Design: FPGA based DSP system design, advanced development tools for FPGA, development

tool for programmable DSP’s- An introduction to Code composer studio.

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