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RGPV B.E Electronics Instrumentation 8th Sem (Grading System) Syllabus

Thursday, January 30

                                              EI- 801 – Optical Instruments and Sensors

Introduction to vector nature of light, Propagation of light, Propagation of light in a cylindrical
dielectric rod, ray model, wave model. Theory of image formation, Review of aberration,
Comma, acclamation, distortion, Chromative aberration, Osages

Different types of optical fibres, model analysis of a step index fiber. Signal degradation on
optical fiber due to dispersion and attenuation.

Optical fiber in instrumentation use of optical fibers as sensors, modulation techniques for
sensors fiber optic power measurement. Stabilized calibrated light sources end-to-end
measurement of fiber losses, optical signal processing.

Optical power meters, optical attenuators, optical spectrum analyzer, optical switching & logic
gate and measurement techniques like optical time domain reflectometry, (OTDR), attenuation

Optical Sources & detectors: LED and LASERS, photo detectors, pin detectors detector
responsitivity – noise, optical receivers. Integrated optical devices

Optical Instrumentation and Sensors

1. Setting up Fiber Optic Analog Link and Digital Link

2. Study of Intensity Modulation Technique using Analog input signal

3. Pulse Width Modulation in Fiber Optic Link.

4. Measurement of propagation or attenuation loss in optical fiber.

5. Measurement of bending loss in optical fiber.

6. Numerical Aperture (NA) of the fiber.

7. Study of Diffraction gratings.

8. Study of Michelson Interferometer.

9. Study of Reflection Holography.

10. Study of Transmission Holography

                                                  EI- 802 – Digital Control Systems

Modeling of Digital Control System Block diagram of sampled data / digital control system,
Discrete LTI systems characterized by difference equations Sampling process and its frequency
domain analysis, Idea sampler, Sampling theorem & Nyquist frequency, Data conversion
techniques uses of A/D, D/A and ZOH elements.

Discrete System Modeling Definition and determination of the Z-plane and Z-transform,
Mapping between S-plane and Z-plane, Z-transform theorems, The inverse Z-transform, Ztransform
of system equations, Solution of linear difference equations using Z-transform, The
pulse response, Block diagram reduction for systems interconnected through samplers, Signal
flow graphs for hybrid systems.

Discrete Control Analysis Stability studies using Routh's test & Jury's test, Steady state error
Analysis for stable systems, Root locus Analysis, Correlation between time Response &
frequency response.

Discrete Transform Analysis Folding / Aliasing, Transformation Methods between planes (s, z
and w), Numerical solution differential, Equations, Jordon transformation, Backward forward &
canonical difference, Pseudo continuous-time (PCT) Control system.

Discrete state Variable Analysis State variable representation, Time domain state and output
equations for sampled data control system, State variable representation of a discrete time
SISO system using phase variables - canonical variables - physical variables, State transition
equation, State variable representation in the z-domain, System stability, Time response
between sampling instants.

List of Experiments
1. Overview of the MATLAB Environment for control system.

2. Step Response of 1st and 2nd order systems in MATLAB.

3. Analysis and Designing of bode plot using MATLAB.

4. Analysis and Designing of Root locus using MATLAB.

5. Introduction to Simulink for Control System.

6. To study of PID controller with Simulink.

7. Introduction of State Spaces design in MATLAB.

8. Test of Controllability and Observability.

9. Determination of state transition matrix

10. Introduction to LTI viewer.

11. Design of digital compensators, Lag, Lead-Leg.

                                                    EI- 8301 – Simulation & Modeling

Introduction: objectives of modeling, System theory and state variables
Type of Model: Analytic, Simulation, Measurement, Analytic Modeling, Probability theory,
Random variables, Poisson process, Markov chains.

Queuing Theory: Little’s Law, M/M/1, M/M/1/k, M/M/C, queuing Models, M/G/1[ Impact variation
in service times]

Petrinets: Stochastic Petrinets[SPN],GSPN.

Simulation Modeling: Continuous and discrete event Simulation, Monte carlo Simulation,
Pseudo random number generation, Non uniform Random variable Generation, Simulation
Languages Features: Simpack, GPSS, GASP IV, CSIM, Estimation of Simulation
Outputs/Output Matrix, confidence Intervals, Regenerative Simulation, Method of Batch Means.

Case Studies: Analytic Vs Simulation Models, Application to Operating Systems, Data bases,
Networks Architectures.

                                          EI- 8302 – Embedded Systems

8 Bit Micro controllers: Introduction to MCS-51 family, Peripheral of MCS-51 family, PIC Micro
Controller –CPU architecture, registers, instruction sets addressing modes, loop timing, On chip
Peripherals of PIC, Motorola MC68H11 Family Architecture Registers, Addressing modes,
Interruptsfeatures of interrupts- Interrupt vector and Priority, timing generation and
measurements, Input capture, Out capture.

16 Bit Micro controller: Introduction to MCS-96 family, Peripherals of MCS-96 family, 80196-
architecture, CPU operation, memory organization, I/O port, Operand addressing, instruction
set, Interrupts, On chip Peripherals-PWM, Timers, HIS/HSO, Serial Port, External memory

32 bit Micro controller: Intel 80960-architecture, memory address space, Salient features of
ARM processor family-ARM7 /ARM9/ ARM9E/ ARM10/ ARM11/ SecureCore /Strong ARM,
XScale technology, ARM9200 Architecture,Pinouts, Peripheral Identifier, System Interrupts,
External Interrupts, Product memory mapping, External memory mapping, Internal memory
mapping, On chip Peripherals-Memory controllers, external Bus Interface(EBI), Advanced
interrupt controller(AIC), USART, Timer counter.

Software development and tools: Embedded system evolution trends. Round- Robin,
Roundrobin with Interrupts, function- One- Scheduling Architecture, Algorithms. Introduction
toassembler- compiler- cross compilers and Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Object
Oriented Interfacing, Recursion, Debugging strategies, Simulators.

Real Time Operating Systems: Task and Task States, tasks and data, semaphores and
shared Data Operating system Services- Message queues- Timer Function- Events- Memory
Management, Interrupt Routines in an RTOS environment, basic design Using RTOS.

                                            EI- 8303 – Intelligent Instrumentation  

Intelligent versus Dumb instruments, A historical perspective of instrumentation systems.
Review of digital transducers. Interfacing micro computers. Computer ports to high power
devices. Optical shaft encoder communication standards. Concepts of Real Time system and its

Details of Data Acquisition systems (DAS) Logic control systems, Continuous & Batch modes,
Single and multi loop controller. Details of Data logger and its application.

Architecture of Virtual instrument and its relation to operating system. Software overview:
LABVIEW, Graphical User Interface (GUI), Control and indicators: G programming- Data type,
Data flow programming editing and running a virtual instrument.

G Programming details in LABVIEW, G Programming tools and libraries. Programming
structure: For loop, While loop. CASE structure, Sequence Structure arrays and clusters. Array
operations- Bundle/Unbundled String and file I/O. High level and low level I/Os. Attribute nodes,
Local and global variables.

Software development for Temperature (Low and High), Level, Speed, pressure etc.

                                           EI- 8304 – Nuclear Instrumentation

General Introduction to Properties of Nuclear Systems and Radiation, Interaction of radiation
with matter, Radioactive sources-Choice of isotopes.
Radiation detectors-Ionization chambers, Geiger-Muller counters, Scintillation counters,
Semiconductor devices, Neutron detectors based on recoil, Measuring circuits including
modulators, converters and stabilizers, Synchronous detectors.
Counting Statistics, Correlation sets, Standard deviation of rate meters, Error propagation,
Effect of background, Statistical distribution of pulse height distribution, Detector efficiency.

Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation
Diffusion, moderation, absorption and delay processes, Neutron flux measurement, Control rod
calibration, Nuclear fuel inspection and testing including poisoning, Radiation energy
measurement, Remote control instrumentation, Nuclear instrument maintenance.

Application to industrial System
Radioactive Tracer technique, Gas and Liquid flow measurement, Leak detection, Residence
time and its distribution, application to blending corrosion and wear studiesThickness and
density measurement by beta rays, Gammaray absorption technique, measurement of
thickness of surface material by back scattering.

Level detection by radioactive devices, interface detection by neutron moderation
technique.Measurement of gas pressure and gas analysers, Speceros-copic and frequency
methods.Void detection, a idity meter, moisture meter, smoke detection, Ozonizer,
Radiochromatography and interferometry.Portable instruments, Source activity for dynamic
properties of instruments.

Hazards of ionization radiation, physiological effect of radiation, Dose and Risk, Radiological
protection (Plpha, beta and Gamma, X, Neutron), Shielding material and effectiveness.
Operational safety instruments, emergency schemes, effluent disposal, Application to medical
diagnosis and reatment.

                                            EI- 8401– Fuzzy Logic & Neural Networks

Fuzzy system introduction, Fuzzy relation, Membership function, Fuzzy matrices and entropy,
Fuzzy operation and composition.

Fuzzy Variables, Linguistic variables, measures of fuzziness, concepts of defuzzification, Fuzzy
control applications.

Fundamentals of Artificial Neural networks- Biological prototype – Artificial neuron, Activation
functions, Single layer and multiplayer networks. Training Artificial neural networks,
Preceptrons, Exclusive Or Problem – Linear seperability, Storage efficiency, Preceptron
learning, perceptron training algorithms. Back propagation, Training algorithm, network
configurations, Network paralysis, Local minima, temporal instability.

Counter propagation networks, Kohonen layer, Training the kohonen layer, Pre processing the
inputted vectors, Initialising the wright vectors, Statistical properties, Training the grosberg layer.
Full counter propagation networks, Applications.
Statistical methods, Boltzman training, Cauchy training, Artificial specific heat methods,
Applications to general non-linear optimization problems. Back propagation and cauchy training.

Hopfield nets, Recurrent networks, Stability, Associative memory, Thermodynamic systems,
Statistical Hopfiled networks, Applications. Bi-directional associative memories, Retrieving on
stored association, Encoding the associations.

                                               EI- 8402– Digital Image Processing

Digital Image Processing- Elements of a Digital Image Processing system, Structure of the
Human eye, Image formation and contrast sensitivity, Sampling and Quantization, Neighbours
of a pixel, Distance measures, Photographic file structure and exposure, Filem characteristics,
Linear scanner, Video camera, Image processing applications.

Image Transforms-Introduction to Fourier transform-DFT, Properties of two dimensional FT,
Separability, Translation, Periodicity, Rotation, Average value, FFT algorithm, Walsh transform,
Hadamard transform, Discrete Cosine transform.

Image Enhancement- Definition, Spatial domain methods, Frequency domain methods,
Histogram modify technique, Neighborhood averaging, Media filtering, Lowpass filtering,
Averaging of multiple images, Image sharpening by differentiation and high pass filtering.

Image Restoration-Definition, Degradation model, Discrete formulation, Circulant matrices,
Block circulant matrices, Effect of diagnolization of circulant and block circulant matrices,
Unconstrained and constrained restorations , Inverse filtering, Wiener filter, Restoration in
spatial domain.

Image Encoding-Objective and subjective fidelity criteria, Basic encoding process, The
mapping, The quantizer, The coder, Differential encoding, Contour encoding, Run length
encoding, Image encoding relative to fidelity criterion, Differential pulse code modulation.

                                             EI- 8403– Advance Industrial Electronics

Introduction to modern power conductor devices: Gate turn off thyristor (GTO), Insulated Gate
Bipolar Junction Transistor (IGBT), Power BJT, Power MOSFET, MOS controlled thyristor
(MCT), Reverse conducting thyristor (RCT), Smart Power Devices (Power ICs) Rating, Static
and dynamic characteristics, Safe operating areas, Protections of devices, Devices selection.

DC to DC conversion, Buck Boost and Buck Boost converters (Circuit Configuration and
analysis with different types of loads) Power factor, Harmonics and effect of source inductance
in converter circuits. Resonant DC, DC converters. Switched mode power supply (SMPS).

Concept of PWM in converters, Unity power factor converters, Voltage source inverters (VSI),
Current source inverters (CSI). Application of VSI and CSI in induction motor control.

Non Drive applications of power electronics inverters, Uninterrupted power supply (UPS),
Induction heating, Metal cutting, Active power line conditioning.

Vector controlled and slip power controlled induction motor drives, Application of
microprocessor, Micro controllers and DSP in Machine drives.

                                                      EI- 8404– DSP Processors

An introduction to DSP Processors: Advantages of DSP ,characteristics of DSP systems
,classes of DSP applications.DSP processor embodiment and alternatives,Fixed Vs Floating
point processors,fixed point and floating point data path.

DSP Architecture : An intoduction to Harvard Architecture,Differentiation between Von-
Neumann and Harvard Architecture,Quantization and finite word length effects,Bus structure
,Central Processing unit – ALU ,Accumulators ,Barrel shifters, MAC unit,compare ,select ,and
store unit (CSSU) ,data addressing and program memory addressing

Memory architecture :Memory structures ,features for reducing memory access required ,wait
states,external memory interfaces,memory mapping – dta memory,programmemory,I/O memory
memory mapped registers .Addressing: Various addressing modes –implied
addressing,immediate data addressing,memory direct addressing ,register direct and indirect
addressing and short addressing modes.
Instruction set : Instruction types , various types registers,orhogonality assembly language and
application development.

Execution Control and pipelining : Hardware looping , interrupts, stack , pipelining and
performance, pipelining depth, interlocking , branching effects, interrupt effects, instruction
pipelining,. Peripherals: Serial ports, timers, parallel ports, Bit input/output ports, Host ports,
communication ports, on-chip A/D and D/A converters, external interrupts, on-chip debugging
facilities, power consumption and management.

Processors:Architecture and instruction set of TMS320C3x, TMS320C5x,
TMS320C6x,ADSP21xx DSP chips, some examples programs.Recent trends in DSP system
Design: FPGA based DSP system design, advanced development tools for FPGA, development
tool for programmable DSP’s- An introduction to Code composer studio.

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